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Working in China

Despite recent economic woes, the People's Republic remains the world’s second-largest economy, and there are plenty of opportunities for expats looking for work in China. Expats have traditionally relocated to China to fill senior positions in international companies based in one of the major cities, to start up their own business, or to teach English.

A Chinese work permit is needed for expats to find work in the country, and the process for acquiring a work permit for China can be complicated and is mostly handled by the hiring company.

Job market in China

Expats working in China typically fill upper management and senior-level jobs in fields such as IT, human resources, finance, accounting and manufacturing. As economic dynamics have shifted, however, skilled expats at all levels of the corporate ladder have been seeking employment in China. As the country continues its shift towards a service and special skills economy, many expats now take jobs in sectors such as sales, marketing, engineering and banking.

The education sector continues to be the country's biggest source of employment for expats, with a significant percentage of its foreign workforce employed in the teaching profession. While it may once have been a relatively low-paying job, teaching English as a foreign language in China has developed to provide a respectable salary for expats with tertiary education. It is also a means for many young expats to earn while experiencing a new country and culture.

Finding a job in China

The majority of expat jobs are found in major cities such as Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou, all with large expat business communities. Speaking Mandarin is an advantage and is often a way to secure a high-paying job, but many international companies use English in everyday affairs and many expats get by without Mandarin.

To balance this view, the majority of expats continue to be hired by international firms, and opportunities at companies that are completely Chinese-owned continue to be limited. Relocation packages are also less lucrative than they used to be, although many companies still subsidise housing costs, airfare, health insurance and some tax payments.

Many local businesses also prefer hiring Chinese candidates with overseas experience. This is at least in part because hiring foreign employees comes with high costs, and many new arrivals initially have difficulty adjusting to the language and the culture. Some businesses have turned to hiring middle-management level employees from places such as Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Not only do these candidates often speak English, they demand lower salaries and can usually speak some Mandarin. Many young expat professionals have found a way around this by taking relatively low-paying entry positions, trading income for the experience that benefits them later in their careers – in China or elsewhere.

There are a number of ways of going about job hunting in China. Company websites may provide listings of available postings, while online job portals and employment networking websites, such as Glassdoor, XpatJobs and LinkedIn, are also a good starting point. Expats may also find the services of recruitment agencies helpful.

When securing a job, we recommend that expats thoroughly read through their employment contract and understand all terms and conditions of their roles and requirements in China. Harsh penalties are known to be faced by foreigners who do not obey the law, so ensuring a valid work permit and visa is essential.

Work culture in China

Chinese business culture is dominated by guanxi, a local concept that is a more intricate take on the Western idea of networking. Much time is devoted to cultivating and maintaining relationships as local businesspeople rarely do business with those they don't know and trust. 

Related to the concept of guanxi is 'saving face'. It’s important that expats always conduct themselves in a dignified manner and avoid offending or embarrassing their Chinese associates at all costs.

Integrating into Chinese corporate culture can be quite a challenge for Western expats. The language barrier, in particular, may take some adjustment, and expats would do well to at least learn some key phrases in Mandarin.

Despite challenges, those expats that manage to successfully find work and integrate into Chinese working life do report high levels of satisfaction.

Healthcare in China

Healthcare in China is a significant point of contention for many expats. Treatment is available in public hospitals, international clinics within them or at private facilities that cater to expats. The Chinese healthcare system is hospital-centred, so expats often forego the search for a general practitioner.

As can be expected from such a vast country, the quality of care, the ease of access and the associated costs vary tremendously between different places and institutions. Most expats in China do, however, take out private health insurance and seek treatment at private facilities.

Public healthcare in China

China's public healthcare system is best described as inconsistent. Many cities have direct access to hospitals and a range of medical services, whereas rural areas can be hours away from the nearest clinic.

In general, however, China’s public healthcare system is considered substandard. While this may not be the case with every facility, the language barrier, slow service and long queues dissuade most Westerners from seeking treatment in a public hospital. Once expats overcome these inconveniences, the quality of treatment itself is in many cases decent, even if the methods used by doctors are different.

International wings in public hospitals

In an attempt to bridge the gap between the quality of care at costly private hospitals and the poor service at public facilities, some public clinics have opened international wings. These exist as partnerships between the state and the private sector, and aim to provide access to public healthcare with Western standards of healthcare.

Many of these share doctors with public facilities, but don't have the long waiting times. International wings also have a greater focus on customer care, are more likely to have English-speaking staff, and are able to offer treatments at a lower cost than private hospitals. International wings are a relatively new phenomenon, and are only found in China's largest commercial centres.

Private healthcare in China

International hospitals are well represented in larger cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, but will be absent in most smaller cities and rural communities. While these private facilities often have English-speaking medical staff with Western training, the high standards and service-orientated treatment come at a high price, though.

Health insurance in China

Though 95 percent of the Chinese population has at least basic health insurance, coverage isn't as comprehensive as perhaps expected. Public health insurance, for instance, generally only covers half of the medical bills. Premiums also tend to be high, even for the most basic insurance plans.

It's therefore essential for expats to negotiate private health insurance as part of their employment package. If this isn't possible, they may want to consider opening a policy on their own. Expats should ensure their hospital of choice recognises the insurance policy they hold.

Medication and pharmacies in China

Expats in Chinese cities will have access to the kinds of prescription medicines they're used to, as well as a range of traditional Chinese medicines. Some pharmacists have expertise in both areas, and those that do make for a valuable resource.

Prescription regulations vary between countries, so if there's any medication an expat takes regularly, they should do some research to find out whether it can be bought over the counter in China or if a prescription is required.

Pharmacies are widely available in urban areas and are conveniently organised into different departments. Most labels are in Chinese, so some assistance from a local friend, colleague or bilingual pharmacist may be necessary.

Health hazards in China

Pollution is a concern in many Chinese cities, and may be an issue for any expats with pre-existing respiratory problems. Expats living in urban areas should make an effort to exercise regularly and use an air purifier at night.

The safety of drinking water in China is another health concern. It's best to avoid drinking tap water and rather consume bottled water.

Different areas pose varying health risks. Regions with higher altitudes, such as Qinghai Province, could cause altitude sickness. It's advised to follow instructions from the Chinese authorities regarding any health alerts.

Emergency services in China

Emergency services in China are provided by the state’s emergency medical services. These are widespread and efficient in urban areas, but are less reliable or absent in rural regions. Ambulances often have a physician on board, but it's best to look out for and avoid so-called 'black ambulances' – unlicensed, private ambulances that could charge you a fortune.

  • 120 – Ambulance services

  • 119 – Fire department

  • 110 – Public Security Bureau

Work Permits for China

Chinese visa processes are notoriously difficult to navigate, and the safest option would be to work through an immigration expert or relocation company. Immigration procedures are largely carried out at a local level, and each locality has a unique structure. This means that expats who apply for a work permit in China will need to fulfil different requirements depending on where they'll be working. 

After entering the country with their Z visa, expats should apply for work and residence permits for China as soon as possible. 

Work permits for China

Each case is unique and there are differences between each city’s immigration and labour processes. There are, however, a few standard requirements that expat employees will likely have to fulfil:

  • The Z visa is required prior to arrival

  • The work permit application must be sponsored by a locally registered company in China

  • Expats will need to live and work in the same location as their sponsoring company

  • A medical examination is required

The employee will go for a medical examination at an authorised hospital either inside or outside of China. A report must be signed by their doctor and stamped with the hospital’s seal. The medical report will be attached to an employment licence application, which is usually submitted by the Chinese employer to their local labour bureau.

Some cities, such as Beijing, also require foreign employees to have proof of no criminal record attested by Chinese authorities.

Once an employment licence is approved and granted, the company requests a Z visa invitation from their local Foreign Economic and Trade Commission. These are forwarded to the expat employee, who applies for a Z visa at the Chinese embassy or consulate in their home country. After the employee arrives in China, they need to apply for a work permit at their local labour bureau.

Residence permits for China

Within 24 hours of arriving in China, expats have to complete a Temporary Residence Registration Form and produce their passport at the nearest Public Security Bureau (PSB). Expats staying in a hotel may be able to register there, but those staying with a Chinese resident or private accommodation will have to register at the local PSB. Some cities require expats to do this after every trip they make out of the country.

In addition to applying for a work permit and registering their temporary residence, expats need to apply for a Working Foreigner’s Residence Permit at their local PSB within 30 days of arriving in the country.

The Chinese residence permit is an expat’s proof that they're legally living in the country. If someone wants to move to a different region of China, they'll have to get permission from their local PSB and apply for a new residence permit at the PSB in their new destination.

If any changes need to be made to the residence permit, such as a change of address, they have to be applied for within a certain time frame after the change takes place.

The following may be required when applying for a residence permit for China:

  • Passport, photos and other supporting personal documentation

  • Fingerprints and other biometric information

  • A health certificate

  • Work permit and other relevant supporting materials issued by Chinese authorities

*Visa and work permit regulations can change at short notice and expats should contact their nearest Chinese embassy or consulate for the latest information.

Shipping and Removals in China

Expats who want to bring over their personal belongings when relocating should think carefully about shipping and removals in China. When weighing up the pros and cons of shipping goods to the People’s Republic, there are key things to bear in mind.

Many apartments can be rented furnished, and there are plenty of furniture and appliance shopping options. This tends to work out as the cheaper alternative, so it may be worth leaving household belongings in storage in one's home country if planning to return.

Shipping companies in China

Expats considering shipping furniture to China should get quotes from several companies and carefully research those organisations that come recommended. Large international companies may have offices in both one's home country and China, while other companies may outsource one end of the shipping process to local companies.

Many expats receive the help of relocation firms when making the move, often provided by the employing company. These specialise in a comprehensive selection of services from getting visas to shipping logistics. We recommend consulting relocation companies as well as moving companies.

We highly recommend that expats have insurance for any belongings being shipped to China. Insurance usually comes as part of a moving package, though some expats prefer to take out insurance separately through a different company.

Shipping goods to China

Shipping times vary depending on where in the world one is shipping from, though most companies will be able to provide an accurate estimated arrival time. Use expat forums and online testimonials to confirm this estimate if feeling sceptical.

Air freight is a popular method and a much faster way to ship smaller cargo, although costs can be much higher than if shipping by sea – air freight is typically billed by weight while sea freight is billed according to the size of the container. That said, some expats prefer to spend a little more on the cost of excess baggage to have their belongings arrive immediately.

Expats should also note that China levies various taxes depending on the type of imported goods. Electrical goods are always taxed, and books, CDs and DVDs may be confiscated by customs, depending on the material.

Be meticulous about making copies and keeping the paperwork that must be completed, as these will be needed when exporting the items from China back to one's home country.

Bringing medicine into China

The shipping of medical and dental supplies and equipment into China is restricted, and expats should check the latest customs requirements and query the moving company on this. Pharmacies and healthcare centres in the country may stock the same medication, so bringing it in may not be necessary.

Even when travelling into China, expats and tourists must note restrictions on carrying medication in their luggage. Written prescriptions should be kept, and medicine should typically be limited to an amount determined as reasonable for personal use. 

Shipping pets to China

Bringing pets into China generally proves expensive and requires extensive documentation and potentially quarantine.

Cats and dogs require proof of rabies vaccination and an international health certificate. Within one month of arriving, dogs must be registered with the local police.

Weather in China

Its extensive territory means that the weather in China differs between regions. With the Himalayas in the west, the Gobi Desert in the north and pervasive city smog in a country spanning two major ecozones, it follows that there is a vast degree of variation in China’s climate, which ranges from sub-arctic to tropical.

Roughly speaking, China can be divided into five climatic zones from south to north: tropical, subtropical, temperate, medium temperate and sub-arctic.

South China, with cities such as Guangzhou, generally has hot and humid summers with frequent rains, and high temperatures of above 86°F (30°C). Winter temperatures range from mild to warm and experience lighter rains and lower levels of humidity.

Cities such as Shanghai in the east are affected by ocean currents and monsoons, experiencing humid and rainy summers, and cold winters with light rain and occasional snow.

Central China is popular with tourists for its natural beauty and the ancient attractions in cities such as Wuhan. It has year-round precipitation, distinctive seasons and relatively warm temperatures throughout much of the year, with occasional light snow in winter, and summer monsoons.

Western China, spanning a large region ranging from desert plateaus to mountainous Tibet, is known for its geographic diversity. As a whole, winters in the region are dry and cold while some areas experience scorching summers and others are milder.

Northern China, which most notably contains Beijing, is known for winters that are progressively colder the further north one goes, with some of the lowest temperatures in the country. Summers are often warm, with high levels of rainfall and humid conditions.


Culture Shock in China

Many expats don’t know what to expect before they arrive in China, and it isn't unusual to experience some level of culture shock. The country is famed for its unique culture, and expats will have no shortage of new things to explore and learn about. That being said, China's fast development is likely to make the adjustment more comfortable for most new arrivals.  

Meeting and greeting in China

When it comes to greeting, people usually say “ni hao”, which means “hi”. If they want to show extra respect, they use the phrase “nin hao”. Expats should keep in mind that Chinese people don't usually shake hands as this isn't part of their greeting ritual, although they may greet a foreigner with a handshake to show an understanding of Western culture. Chinese people are generally friendly and very hospitable.

Language barrier in China

The language barrier in China can be a big challenge for expats. There are a few reasons for this. Apart from Chinese Mandarin, which is the country’s official language, hundreds of other dialects exist. Learning Chinese Mandarin is hard enough, but in some rural areas, and especially the older generation, people can't even speak Mandarin.

The second reason is that even though young people learn English nowadays, the education system doesn't give them many opportunities to use it. This means that while many people can understand easy phrases, they're often quite shy when it comes to speaking.

People generally don’t bother translating things into English outside of the big cities, where the biggest numbers of foreigners are found. As such, it's a good idea for expats to learn a few useful phrases in Chinese before arriving in the country.

Time in China

There's only one official time zone in China: GMT+8, which is also called Beijing Time. In reality, China stretches over several time zones and in some provinces far away from Beijing two versions of time are said to exist. One is the official one and the second is the local one.

Urban Chinese people are generally punctual, although huge traffic jams and conditions on the road are often difficult to predict and expats should keep this in mind when making appointments. On the other hand, time is much more flexible in smaller cities and rural areas. For example, people won’t say, “Let’s meet at 6pm". Instead, they will often arrange, more flexibly, to meet in the evening.

Religion in China

Religion isn't very popular in China and it's more common to find religious people in rural areas than in the cities. Those who are religious are mostly Buddhist or Muslim, although there are small groups of Christians in bigger cities. Although Chinese society is not very religious, many locals go to Buddhist temples to pray for the happiness of their families during celebrations such as the Spring Festival.

Women in China

Although perceptions of a woman’s role in society have changed, an ancient concept still exists in many Chinese minds. Today women play a significant role in the management of Chinese companies, but they're also still usually expected to fulfil traditional roles when it comes to the home and children.

Politeness in China

Expats may come across certain behaviours in China which would be considered rude in their own home countries. This is particularly true of social pleasantries like 'please', 'thank you' and 'excuse me', which are not used nearly as frequently in Chinese societies as they are in many Western societies. 

These behaviours may seem impolite to foreigners but are generally not considered rude in the local culture. While China's unique form of politeness may take some time to get used to, expats should keep this cultural difference in mind and try to avoid being offended by local customs.

Cultural dos and don’ts in China

Chinese culture is so diverse that only the most essential and crucial cultural dos and don'ts are listed below.

  • Don't be surprised if a stranger asks about personal things like age and marital status

  • Don't refuse a dinner invitation as this will cause the host to lose face. Rather reschedule.

  • Don't criticise Chinese food and culture when eating out with local people. Rather focus on the good points.

  • Don't be too individualistic. China has a collective culture that values society over the individual.

  • Do spend time in parks. Chinese people spend a lot of their time in city parks, singing or dancing together. 

  • Do be aware of Chinese laws and legal customs. There are cultural sensitivities relating to politics that may present as touchy topics, and these should be avoided, particularly when doing business.

Embassy Contacts for China

Chinese embassies

  • Chinese Embassy, Washington DC, United States: +1 202 495 2266

  • Chinese Consular Section Embassy, London, United Kingdom: +44 20 7631 1430

  • Chinese Embassy, Ottawa, Canada: +1 613 789 3434

  • Chinese Embassy, Canberra, Australia: +61 2 6228 3999

  • Chinese Embassy, Pretoria, South Africa: +27 12 431 6500

  • Chinese Embassy, Dublin, Ireland: +353 1 219 6651

  • Chinese Embassy, Wellington, New Zealand: +64 4 473 3514

Foreign embassies in China

  • United States Embassy, Beijing: +86 10 8531 3000

  • British Embassy, Beijing: +86 10 5192 4000

  • Canadian Embassy, Beijing: +86 10 5139 4000

  • Australian Embassy, Beijing: +86 10 5140 4111

  • South African Embassy, Beijing: +86 10 6532 0171

  • Irish Embassy, Beijing: +86 10 8531 6200

  • New Zealand Embassy, Beijing: +86 10 8532 7000

Cost of Living in China

Most expats are lured to China by lucrative salary packages that allow them to live a far more luxurious life than many locals. What many expats don't realise, though, is that living a Western lifestyle in China comes at a price. Those thinking of relocating to China should therefore carefully evaluate their desired level of comfort and luxury, research the associated cost of living, and negotiate their employment contract accordingly.

An expat's cost of living in China will depend on their lifestyle, how much luxury they want and how far they'll go to recreate the life they had back home. As in most destinations, the cost of living in the larger urban centres will far exceed that of the rural villages.

Beijing and Shanghai, in particular, claim cost of living levels on par with many major European capitals. According to Mercer's Cost of Living Survey for 2023, Shanghai ranked 12th and Beijing ranked 13th out of 227 cities, and while Shenzhen and Guangzhou have a lower cost of living, they still ranked 20th and 36th respectively.

Cost of transport in China

Transport costs can be kept to a minimum for someone based in a big city such as Beijing, Shanghai or Guangzhou, which have reliable and affordable public transit systems. Many people choose to cycle or ride scooters, which is often the easiest and cheapest way to travel short distances in China.

By contrast, driving in China can prove quite costly, and dangerous. A leased vehicle can cost nearly as much as accommodation, petrol isn't cheap, and it is typically necessary to hire a driver.

Cost of accommodation in China

Most expats will find their largest expense to be accommodation in China, especially if they're based in Beijing or Shanghai. Expats tend to congregate in the suburbs near the city centre that have higher-than-average rental prices. Most accommodation comes with furnishings, which add to the rent, and initial real-estate agent fees are an additional expense when house hunting.

Cost of groceries in China

The cost of groceries in China can be relatively affordable. While prices can vary depending on the location, expats can typically find a wide range of fresh produce, meat and dairy products at local markets and supermarkets. China also offers a variety of packaged and canned goods, as well as snacks and desserts. Home cooking enthusiasts can find a wide range of spices, sauces, and other ingredients to experiment with.

When shopping for groceries in China, expats may notice that certain imported items can be pricier than their domestic counterparts. That said, there are often many locally produced alternatives that can be just as tasty and affordable.

Cost of education in China

Expats who relocate with children will find that while the costs attached to international schools in China can be steep, most of these institutions offer excellent facilities and teaching standards. This cost increases as the child moves to higher grade levels, so expat parents are encouraged to negotiate an education allowance into their employment contract. 

Cost of entertainment and eating out in China

For expats living in China, entertainment and eating out can be a delightful experience, with a range of options to suit all budgets. From street food stalls to high-end restaurants, the culinary scene in China offers something for everyone. Eating out at local restaurants can be very affordable, especially when compared to Western countries.

For those on a tight budget, street food vendors offer a variety of cheap and tasty options. Expats looking for a more upscale dining experience can choose from a wide range of options including regional Chinese cuisine, international fusion, and Western-style restaurants.

In terms of entertainment, there is no shortage of options in China. The country boasts a rich cultural heritage, and there are many opportunities to explore it through music, dance and theatre performances. China also has a vibrant nightlife scene, with plenty of bars and clubs to pick from. Expats can also take advantage of various outdoor activities such as hiking, cycling and water sports.

Cost of living in China chart 

Prices may vary across China, depending on the product and service provider. The list below shows average prices for Shanghai in March 2023.

Accommodation (monthly rent)

Three-bedroom apartment in the city centre

RMB 21,000

Three-bedroom apartment outside the city centre

RMB 10,400

One-bedroom apartment in the city centre

RMB 7,800

One-bedroom apartment outside the city centre

RMB 4,000

Food and drink

Dozen eggs

RMB 22

Milk (1 litre)

RMB 20

Rice (1kg)

RMB 8.96

Loaf of white bread

RMB 18.04

Chicken breasts (1kg)

RMB 34

Pack of cigarettes (Marlboro)

RMB 25

Eating out

Three-course meal for two at a mid-range restaurant

RMB 290

Big Mac meal

RMB 41

Coca-Cola (330ml)

RMB 3.76


RMB 28

Bottle of beer (local)



Mobile call rate (per minute – mobile to mobile)

RMB 0.20

Internet (uncapped ADSL or cable – average per month)

RMB 117

Basic utilities (average per month for a standard household)

RMB 500


Taxi rate/km


City-centre public transport fare


Gasoline (per litre)



Public Holidays in China




New Year's Day

1 January

1 January

Chinese New Year

21–27 January

9–15 February

Qingming Festival

3–5 April

4 April

Worker's Day

1 May

1 May

Dragon Boat Festival

22–23 June

10 June

Mid-Autumn Festival

29 September

17 September

National Day

1–7 October

1–7 October

*In December of the previous year, the government announces official public holidays, which tend to stretch over a few days.

Articles about China

Education and Schools in China

Known for its rigid, exam-driven public system and an educational philosophy that emphasises results and discipline, China is serious about schooling. Expat parents are faced with a difficult decision when choosing a school in China, with language and cultural barriers being two big considerations.

There is a variety of options when it comes to education in China, and expats can choose to send their children to a public, private or international school. Homeschooling is another popular choice for expats, as well as some locals.

Public schools in China

Foreigners occasionally choose to send their children to public schools in China, particularly in the early preschool years. Western families are becoming more comfortable with the idea of permanence in China, and some want their children to become as well assimilated as possible.

Pre-school in China is not compulsory, but generally lasts three years. Primary education covers six years of schooling, and children start at the age of six. Secondary school also lasts six years. Children can attend either an academic high school or a vocational high school.

As is often the case, some state schools in China are better than others. Overall, the best schools offer a high standard of education and, in many cases, are more competitive and more rigorous than the public options in an expat’s home country.

Foreigners who choose this option should be aware that Chinese schools don't have second-language programmes. All lessons and coursework are in Chinese, with few concessions made for foreign students. School days are also long, and the teaching style tends to centre less around critical thinking and more on teaching by rote.

Private schools in China

Some Chinese private schools are better-funded equivalents of state-sponsored education, while others integrate aspects of international curricula and may offer instruction in English as well as Chinese. Alternative learning schools, such as Montessori and Waldorf, also fall into this category. 

They often boast better infrastructure, more comprehensive facilities and with a larger selection of extra-curricular activities than state alternatives. Tuition costs more than in public schools, but a lot less than international schools.

Private schools in China tend to attract students from diverse but well-to-do backgrounds.

International schools in China

Most expats in China send their children to an international school. In no short supply, these institutions are often the obvious choice for parents that want a smooth and quick transition for their children.

Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou boast the largest concentrations of international schools, but many medium-sized cities will have at least two or three in close proximity. Most follow the International Baccalaureate (IB) curriculum or the curriculum from the country they represent. That said, standard coursework often features local culture and many schools teach Mandarin or Cantonese. Classes are usually in English or the primary language of the school's home country.

International schools in China come in different forms and cater to all kinds of students. Admission to these schools is competitive and the most popular often have long waiting lists. Admission can be a long process involving forms, interviews, placement tests and application fees, and it's often best for parents to start corresponding from their home country.

One thing that connects all of these schools is the high cost of tuition. Costs at some schools rival international university tuition. Expats moving to China for work should try to negotiate an education allowance into their package if one isn't already included. 

Homeschooling in China

Homeschooling has been growing in popularity among foreigners and locals alike in recent years and larger cities often have homeschooling support groups for parents and students, which provide opportunities for families to interact with one another.

However, homeschooling is frowned upon by the government, and is essentially illegal. Chinese law stipulates that all children are to receive nine years of compulsory education at a registered school. However, the government has not yet fully implemented this law, nor does it seem to apply to expat children as they hold foreign citizenship. Nevertheless, the government has become increasingly vocal about its disapproval of the practice in recent years and has reiterated in numerous statements that homeschooling is not acceptable in China.

Expat parents intending to homeschool their children should consider their options carefully, especially since homeschooled children aren't allowed to write the final school-leaving exam that determines entry to Chinese universities.

Special-needs education in China

In China, special-needs education has historically been provided separately to mainstream schools. There have been recent moves towards inclusive education, including greater admission of students with disabilities into mainstream schools as well as teacher training programmes. However, progress has been limited: children may not receive all the necessary support, while early detection of learning difficulties is not common.

Parents of children with disabilities, whether physical, psychological or behavioural, should look to the services available in private and international schools. While the level of support varies between international schools, they are more likely to offer support facilities, including learning support teachers, counsellors and assistive devices.

Tutors in China

Education is highly valued in China, and as such, children who need extra support outside of the classroom may very well look for tutors. Tutoring is common in China and can be done in person or online. Parents can find tutors for their children who specialise in a specific curriculum or particular subjects and subject areas. 

Resources available seem endless, and there are many online platforms and portals to network and search for tutors, including TeacherOn and Preply, as well as tutoring companies such as Shanghai Expat Tutors.

Pros and cons of moving to China

Famous for its architectural marvels, strong economy and diverse cuisine, China is a popular expat destination. Owing to its endless professional opportunities and vibrant culture, China may seem like an expat paradise, but there are some downsides to living in the Southeast Asian giant.

Here are some of the pros and cons of moving to China.

Working in China

+ PRO: Robust job market

China is the world’s second-largest economy, just behind the US, and therefore offers plenty of job opportunities for skilled expats in a range of sectors, including teaching English as a foreign language, finance, manufacturing and human resources.

+ PRO: High expat salaries

Expats working in China will enjoy an excellent quality of life and with some careful budgeting, may even be able to put some money away for a rainy day, thanks to the profitable employment packages on offer. That said, expat packages may not be as lucrative as they once were, but costs such as housing, airfare, health insurance and some tax payments are still offered by some employers.

- CON: Complicated work permit application processes

Chinese work permit application processes are infamously difficult to navigate as each city has its own immigration and labour processes. Fortunately, employers take care of the bulk of the administration, but expats will typically need to undergo a medical examination and live in the same city as the sponsoring company to secure a Z visa.

Healthcare in China

+ PRO: International wings in public hospitals

Due to the inadequate standards of care at Chinese public healthcare facilities and the country’s growing expat population, public hospitals in Chinese commercial centres have introduced international wings to offer expats quality treatment at a lower cost. Expats will also be able to find English-speaking staff at these facilities.

- CON: Healthcare standards are generally subpar

China’s cities generally have access to hospitals that offer a diverse range of services, while its rural areas have little to no public healthcare facilities. The standard of care at these facilities tends to be inadequate and slow, while expats may be further frustrated by the language barrier.

- CON: Health insurance is expensive

Health insurance premiums in China are typically quite exorbitant, even for the most basic policies. An additional point of contention is that the coverage may not be as comprehensive as expats might be used to.

Cost of living in China

+ PRO: Affordable food, electronics and public transport

An expat’s cost of living in China will largely depend on the lifestyle they prefer. Expats who would like to enjoy Western luxuries and food will find China's cost of living quite steep. Those who embrace the local way of life will find locally produced food and electronics as well as public transport fairly affordable.

- CON: Accommodation in major cities is pricey

Housing in cities such as Beijing and Shanghai is notoriously expensive and is even on par with major European cities. Expats moving to these regions of China will need to budget carefully or negotiate for housing expenses to be included in their relocation package.

Accommodation in China

+ PRO: Lots of affordable housing available

Expats moving to China will be spoilt for choice when it comes to housing. The most common type of accommodation in China is apartments while freestanding houses are few and far between. Expats will find everything from serviced apartments to small flats in enormous complexes to small rooms with Chinese-style ablution facilities.

+ PRO: Luxury accommodation with sought-after amenities is widespread

China’s big cities such as Shanghai and Beijing often offer many luxury accommodation options, including serviced apartments and villa complexes with amenities such as swimming pools, gyms and internet services, although these do come at a high cost.

- CON: Apartment sizes may be small and low in standard

While China may have myriad accommodation types, the standards of housing in the country may be questionable and smaller than what most expats may be used to. It is recommended that new arrivals tour an apartment before committing to a rental agreement.

Safety in China

- CON: Pollution is a serious health hazard

China is one of the world’s biggest manufacturing hubs, and with that level of industrial activity comes pollution. Smog frequently fills the air in China’s major cities and can cause sinus congestion. Expats should be sure to use an air purifier and speak to their healthcare provider if they have a pre-existing medical condition to ensure their safety in China.

- CON: Drinking water is unsafe

Pollution in China has also affected its water quality, making it unsafe for consumption. Expats should rather buy bottled water for drinking and cooking.

Education and schools in China

+ PRO: International schools abound

Expat parents will no trouble finding a suitable international school for their children. Many schools offer the International Baccalaureate programme, while others offer their home country’s curriculum.

- CON: Competition for international schools is stiff

Although there are plenty of international schools in China, competition for places can be tough and the prestigious schools will have long waiting lists. Admission processes are also quite involved and tend to include placement tests, interviews and a mountain of forms for parents to fill out.

- CON: Public schools emphasise rote learning rather than critical thinking

Parents with young children who would like for them to assimilate into the local culture may choose to send them to public schools. Public schools in China place a heavy emphasis on rote learning and cramming, which usually involves children spending most of their day at school and in after-school lessons.

Getting around in China

+ PRO: Plenty of public transport options

Considering China’s huge geographic size, it’s only fitting for the country to have a plethora of public transport options. Buses, ferries, metros and taxis are all available in most of China’s cities. Expats looking for a free and healthy way to commute will also be glad to learn that walking and cycling are also popular ways to travel in much of China.

- CON: Driving is chaotic

Driving in China will most likely be a challenging experience for an expat. As the world’s most populous country, China’s traffic congestion is severe, parking is limited and drivers rarely adhere to road regulations. For those reasons, most expats who choose to own a car in China hire a local driver.

Accommodation in China

Initially, expats are often overwhelmed by the variety of accommodation in China, but soon realise that small units in huge apartment buildings are the most affordable option. These often feel cramped at first, especially for foreigners who are accustomed to larger properties. But most expats adjust and end up being perfectly comfortable – they even find that everything they need can be stored with a bit of creative organisation.

It's also fairly common for expats to hire a housekeeper in China. Informally called ayi (Chinese for 'aunt'), they provide cleaning and housekeeping services at an affordable rate.

Expats should also note that they're required by law, as per visa requirements, to register their address at the local Public Service Bureau (PSB) as soon as they move in. Hotels normally do this for guests, while those residing elsewhere must do this themselves.

Types of accommodation in China

Expats should be warned that a 'standard apartment' in China could be anything from a tiny, dark room with a squat toilet to a spacious apartment with internet facilities and marble floors. Of course, most apartments are somewhere in between. As a result, potential tenants should conduct thorough market research when they first arrive to ensure that they find a place they could reasonably occupy for an extended period.

The price of accommodation varies widely according to size, amenities and location. Apartments in China can be furnished or unfurnished, which also affects their price. Before sending a large shipment of belongings overseas, expats should keep in mind that there is an impressive assortment of furniture stores in China.

Serviced apartments and complexes

The most expensive real estate is usually found in the big cities – Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. Within these, the priciest rentals include serviced luxury apartments that are often reserved for short-term rentals, and villa complexes aimed at China’s nouveau rich and foreign executives.

House shares

Expats looking to cut costs could consider house sharing, a form of accommodation that's popular among younger foreigners in particular. This can be arranged via online couch-surfing portals, internet forums and word of mouth. It is sometimes easier for a few expats to get together to hire an agent and rent an entire apartment than it is to find a single room for rent.


Aside from the standard roommate arrangement, some adventurous expats choose to rent a room with a Chinese family, known as 'homestaying'. This is often done through specialised websites, but it can be risky. While some people enjoy the experience, many report problems with agencies and families who expect tenants to tutor their children. 

Finding accommodation in China

Foreigners who don’t speak Mandarin usually enlist the services of a Chinese real estate agent to help them find a place to stay. While some agencies in the larger cities may be able to help customers in English, it's often necessary to hire a translator to help with negotiations as well. Commission for estate agents in China is negotiable but is usually the equivalent of a month's rent, or a percentage of it, and is paid by the tenant.

Expats planning their move can also use online portals, such as FlatInChina and, but are highly recommended to visit the property in person or have someone visit on their behalf before signing any rental agreement. House hunters who network and look for properties with the help of friends and colleagues may also be able to secure a great deal on rent.

Renting accommodation in China


Rental contracts are generally valid for one year; some leases may be valid for three or six months. Rent is normally paid monthly.

Unless both parties are comfortable with one language, a contract in both English and Chinese should be signed. It's advisable to have the contract checked by a Chinese speaker to make sure that the translations are the same. While both documents are binding, the Chinese contract is often favoured when a dispute arises.

Some landlords may ask for cash payments, although online transactions are more secure. Expats with a Chinese bank account might be able to set up a direct debit or a standing order to cover their monthly rental expenses.

To avoid potential scams, before signing any lease, prospective tenants should ask for documentation proving ownership of the property, which is also needed when registering with the police or PSB.


Landlords normally require a refundable deposit of at least one month's rent. Upon signing the lease, the tenant is generally expected to pay one or two months' rent upfront.


In most instances, the tenant is expected to pay utility bills in China. Payment methods can vary between cities and expats should check this with their relevant local authorities. Some services may require certain documentation, especially for first-time purchases. Expats should ask their estate agent about this in the contract negotiation stage.

Electricity payments are regulated by the state and tariffs are the same across the country. Many people use prepaid electric meters. First-time buyers should apply for a top-up smart card at an authorised outlet, such as a branch of the power supply company or certain banks, depending on the city. Units can then be loaded onto the card, which is inserted into their meter.

Tenants in apartments with access to a natural gas line will usually receive a payment notice shortly after a meter reader visits their property. The bill will indicate a fixed period within which to pay, and payments can be made at gas company outlets and certain banks, convenience stores and post offices. In some cities, expats may be able to use their top-up card for their gas supply as well.

Much the same as for gas, a meter reader comes to measure the household’s water consumption and the local water company sends a payment notice that gives the tenant a set period in which to pay their bill at certain banks and outlets.

Expats without access to the internet will have to apply for their property to be connected via the regional telecom company or China Telecom, the state-owned telecommunications provider. Bills are usually sent every month. These companies also provide phone lines. 

Diversity and inclusion in China

Expats arriving in China will find life both exciting and challenging, with language difficulties and cultural differences to navigate. Diversity and inclusion is becoming important in China, but while the Chinese notion of inclusion overlaps with Western definitions, there is more emphasis on the tolerance of differences rather than the idea of celebrating them.

Accessibility in China

In the run-up to the 2008 Olympics, China signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), committing to providing fundamental freedoms, such as the right to education, employment, and transport. Since then, China has made progress in ensuring that its cities are more accessible to the elderly and those with disabilities.

Although still behind Western standards, major cities have features such as kerb drops at intersections and raised paths for the blind. The more recently built public transport facilities are fully accessible; most airports and metro stations have elevators between floors and 'braille trails' on the ground for the blind, along with disabled toilets and other facilities. Buses rarely have ramps, though, and ramps that are available tend to be steep, so most wheelchair users will require assistance when boarding and alighting. Accessible taxis are hard to find in China.

There is little deference for people with disabilities in China, and not many locals will give wheelchair users space to enter a metro train or proceed along a pavement, so it may be necessary to be assertive.

Further reading

LGBTQ+ in China

The Chinese constitution provides for equality for all citizens, although there is no explicit mention of sexual orientation or gender identity.

China excluded homosexuality from hooliganism in 1997, but the LGBTQ+ community still faces discrimination, and more recently life has been getting harder for gay people in China. There has been a social media crackdown on LGBTQ+ groups, and China’s only LGBT celebration, Shanghai Pride, has not taken place since 2020.

Despite this, every major city in China has a thriving gay scene, with gay-friendly bars, restaurants, and clubs.

Further reading

Gender equality in China

The equality of men and women was enshrined in China’s Constitution in 1954, and since then women in China have seen notable gains in life expectancy and literacy. This is mainly due to China’s rapid economic development. China’s modernisation has, however, seen a drop in the female workforce participation rate. Women are usually solely responsible for child and elder care in China, which principally explains their lower representation in the workforce.

Gender-biased sex selection continues to be a problem in China, particularly in poorer rural areas, due to a 'son preference'. Incidents of sex-selective abortions and female infanticide have resulted in male overpopulation; in 2005, men under age 20 outnumbered women by more than 32 million. It is now illegal to identify the gender of a baby before birth for nonmedical purposes, or to terminate pregnancy for gender preference.

Further reading

Women in leadership in China

Although women represent almost half of the population, they occupy less than 8 percent of senior leadership positions in China. The level of female representation in key government roles is extremely low, and there is just one woman within the Chinese Communist Party Politburo.

Only 10 percent of board directors in listed companies in China are women (World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report, 2020). Entrepreneurship is, however, one area where Chinese women take a leading role. More than half of technology and healthcare start-ups in China had at least one woman on their boards, and 70 percent had at least one female executive. The Global Gender Gap Report puts China towards the bottom of its list – in 2020, it was rated 106th among 153 countries included in the study.

Further reading

Mental health awareness in China

Mental health is a growing issue in China, and this has been exacerbated due to the country’s extended and strict COVID lockdowns. It is also an issue among the elderly, with many senior citizens facing loneliness as their children move away to build new lives in big cities.

Mental health is a taboo subject among many in China, and the fear of being stigmatised and socially isolated discourages people from seeking help. To address this, the Chinese government has introduced laws aimed at raising awareness, training health workers, and integrating mental healthcare within the health service.

Expats can be at risk of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety, exacerbated by the stress and loneliness of moving away from home. Most international companies are now more aware of the impact of mental health issues, and many have adjusted their policies to provide better support. This includes ensuring that mental illness is well covered by the company’s chosen employee healthcare schemes, as well as promoting knowledge and decreasing stigma by holding in-house workshops.

Finding help as a foreigner in China can seem like a daunting prospect, but it is possible to find highly qualified mental health professionals in all the major cities, including psychiatrists, psychologists and counsellors.

Further reading

Unconscious bias training in China

Unconscious bias is an implicit set of often stereotyped ideas an individual carries about groups of people different to themselves. These ideas are not purposefully adopted but rather develop subtly over time, and people tend to hold unconscious biases about groups they never or rarely come into contact with. As a result, they're often inaccurate and based on assumptions.

Unconscious bias can profoundly affect both personal and work conditions. In the workplace, unchecked bias undermines vital aspects of the company, with negative effects on employee performance, retention and recruitment. In a bid to create a better work environment, many companies are beginning to institute unconscious bias training.

There is a preference in many Chinese companies to only take on candidates who are native Chinese. Despite claims of ‘zero tolerance’ by the authorities, xenophobia and racism continue to be a problem in China. According to Human Rights Watch, people of African descent in China face particular discrimination in employment, housing, and refusal of services including by hotels, taxi companies and public transport.

Useful resources

Diversification in the workplace in China

The number of foreigners working in China’s two most important cities is declining due to a change in tax laws, and more recently because foreign talent is deterred by the stringent lockdown measures introduced in response to the COVID pandemic. There are now just 160,000 foreigners living in Shanghai, and only 60,000 in Beijing.

Many Western companies in China face difficulty in attracting and retaining foreign talent, and the reasons are not limited to Covid-related restrictions. According to the European and American companies surveyed in 2021 by the European Chamber of Commerce, other reasons include the high cost of living, a lack of good-quality affordable education, poor air quality, internet restrictions, and, particularly in the case of American companies, geopolitical concerns.

Most global companies now recognise the benefits of a workplace that champions diversity, equity and inclusion. Studies show that diversity often breeds creativity and innovation, and organisations with a diverse and inclusive workforce are happier and more productive. A recent study by the City University of Hong Kong showed 46 percent of those surveyed in Mainland China believe that diversity promotes innovation.

Safety in China

Serious and violent crime in China is rare, although expats can fall victim to petty crime and pickpocketing, particularly in tourist areas. Foreigners should take sensible precautions, like keeping valuables out of sight and only hailing taxis from a marked taxi rank. The standard of driving in China can be low, so the biggest safety risk may, in fact, be crossing a road.

Calendar initiatives in China

4 February – World Cancer Day
8 March – International Women’s Day
March – TB Awareness Month
April – Stress Awareness Month
1 May – Labour Day
19 May – Global Accessibility Awareness Day
10 September – World Suicide Prevention Day
October – Breast Cancer Awareness Month
10 October –World Mental Health Day
14 November – World Diabetes Day
November – Men’s Health Month ('Movember')
1 December – World AIDS Day

Doing Business in China

One of the world’s largest economies, the People’s Republic of China brims with history and opportunity. Economics may be a global language, but Western expats doing business in China often find integrating into Chinese culture a big adjustment and many invest in cross-cultural training and relocation companies to ease the process.

Doing business in China is not always easy. A government that is uncomfortably imposing for many Westerners and a sometimes debilitating language barrier are too much for some to cope with, and many expats leave before their contracts expire. A complicated visa process and the high cost of starting a business in China also add to the challenges.

Despite the downsides, the number of foreign workers in the country has been steadily increasing over the past two decades as more expats arrive to chase success in China.

Fast facts

Business language

Mandarin is the official language of business in China. It's considered polite for foreigners to supply their own interpreter at meetings if they don't understand Mandarin.

Business hours

Usually from 8am to 5pm or 6pm, Monday to Friday, with an occasional break from 12pm to 2pm. Some companies require work on Saturdays. 

Business dress

Business attire in China needs to be formal and subtle. Bright colours are inappropriate, and modesty is key. Flat shoes are the standard for women and are generally a good idea for expat women who are taller than their associates.


Use titles and family names when greeting Chinese businesspeople (this can be confusing as names are traditionally reversed from the Western order). Contrary to popular belief, bowing isn't normally done outside of certain ceremonies and a nod will often suffice. It's also a good idea to wait for the other person to initiate a handshake.


Gift giving is common practice but traditions are changing. Official policy forbids bribery, so gifts may be declined. A good policy is presenting a symbolic gift to the company, in which case it's presented to the most senior person available. Very expensive gifts are best avoided, as they create the obligation to reciprocate.

Gender equality

Although women have historically been viewed as subordinate, opportunities for them have expanded, with more women visible within executive positions in Chinese business.

Business culture in China


In a country where personal relationships are essential for professional advancement, one of the best ways to get ahead is to have an understanding of the business culture in China. Expats will have to become familiar with guanxi, a concept at the centre of commerce in the country.

Functioning both as a noun and a verb, guanxi refers to the relationships that businesspeople form with one another and the process of forming and maintaining those relationships.

A significant portion of preliminary business dealings will often be devoted to building meaningful connections. A central feature of these relationships is that both parties should be able to call upon one another for support or favours. If one does a favour for the other, it’s expected that they'll return the favour at some point.

Guanxi is largely about building trust and, without a meaningful relationship, expats are unlikely to succeed. Guanxi can be maintained through the exchange of gifts, making allowances in negotiations or simply inviting business associates out to dinner.

Expats should also be patient, and avoid rushing decisions and negotiations. This is a vital part of doing business in China, and the long-term benefits usually greatly outweigh any short-term frustrations.

Saving face

'Saving face' is closely associated with guanxi. In Chinese culture, the idea of 'face' is divided into two concepts that function together. On the one hand is mien-tzu, which relates to reputation and success, while on the other is lien, which speaks to a person’s integrity and moral character.

Expats should take every precaution not to publicly embarrass anyone. They should also conduct themselves in a dignified manner that's in accordance with what Chinese society would expect of their position. Losing face or causing anyone else to lose face will negatively affect business relations.

Expats will have to try and strike a careful balance between guanxi and saving face, not least for legal reasons. It is easy for close relationships and reciprocity to become unethical, and there's a fine line between giving gifts and bribery.


Hierarchy and seniority are also key elements of Chinese business culture. Elders and senior associates should always be given respect, which is done by avoiding eye contact and showing deference at meetings.

Attitudes toward foreigners in China

Chinese companies are often eager to work with Western businesses. Unfortunately, there is sometimes a degree of distrust, at least partially because of the country’s troubled history with the West and political differences. But foreign businesspeople who make an effort to respect and understand Chinese culture are better regarded than those who expect to be accommodated.

Dos and don’ts of business in China

  • Do acknowledge senior associates first

  • Do make every effort to avoid offending or embarrassing Chinese associates in public

  • Don't be offended by personal questions

  • Do say "maybe" or "let me think about it" rather than a flat "no"

  • Don't make remarks about communism or discuss Chinese politics

  • Don't gesture with your hands when talking

  • Do exchange business cards at every introduction. Ensure cards include business title, as well as a Chinese translation on one side of the card.

A Brief History of China

Ancient China

  • Archaeological evidence of human habitation in China dates back to at least 500,000 years ago.
  • 2070–256 BCE: Early dynasties include the Xia (2070–1600 BC), the Shang (1600–1050 BC), and the Zhou (1050–256 BCE).
  • 1050–256 BCE: The Zhou period is marked by the development of a feudal system and the rise of a merchant class.
  • 475–221 BCE: The Warring States period is characterised by constant conflict between the various states.
  • 221–206 BCE: The First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, emerges as the victor and establishes the Qin dynasty. Qin Shi Huang goes on to build the first Great Wall. 

Imperial China

  • 206 BCE–220 CE: The Han dynasty sees the continuation of the centralised imperial system established by the Qin. The Han period is also characterised by territorial expansion and the development of a bureaucratic system.
  • 220–280: The Three Kingdoms period is marked by the fragmentation of the Han empire into three independent states.
  • 581–681: The Sui dynasty reunites China and establishes the Grand Canal, connecting the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers.
  • 618–907: The Tang dynasty is a golden age of Chinese civilisation, marked by economic growth, cultural flowering, and territorial expansion.
  • 960–1279: The Song dynasty sees the development of a sophisticated culture and economy and the introduction of gunpowder and movable type printing.
  • 1279–1368: The Mongol conqueror Kublai Khan establishes the Yuan dynasty and sees China form part of a vast empire stretching from Europe to Asia.

Late Imperial China

  • 1368–1644: The Ming dynasty sees the restoration of native Chinese rule and the expansion of maritime trade.
  • 16th century: Portuguese traders arrive in China and establish Macau as a Portuguese colony.
  • 1644–1912: The Manchu-led Qing dynasty is the last imperial dynasty in China, whose rule is marked by territorial expansion, cultural exchange, and population growth.
  • 19th century: The Qing dynasty is in decline, leading to a rise in regional warlords as the central government's power dwindles. Western nations also enact treaties enabling foreign concessions development in China's ports.

Modern China

  • 1839–1842: The First Opium War marks the beginning of China's "Century of Humiliation" at the hands of foreign powers.
  • 1850–1864: The Taiping Rebellion, a rebellion against the Qing dynasty, leaves around 20 million dead.
  • 1899–1901: The Boxer Rebellion is an anti-foreigner, anti-colonial and anti-Christian movement that was ultimately crushed by an international coalition of armies.
  • 1911: The Xinhai Revolution overthrows the Qing dynasty and establishes the Republic of China. The following years are marked by political turmoil and warlordism.
  • 1921: The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) is established and gradually gains control over much of the country during the 1920s and 1930s.
  • 1931–1945: Japan invades China and occupies parts of the country, leading to a brutal war that lasts until 1945.

Communist rule:

  • 1949: The People's Republic of China is established under communist rule and led by Mao Zedong following the defeat of the Nationalists in the Chinese Civil War.
  • 1950s: Mao launched the Great Leap Forward, a massive economic and social campaign to modernise China. The programme leads to widespread famine and economic failure.
  • 1966–1976: Mao launches the Cultural Revolution, a radical political and social campaign to purge the country of counter-revolutionary forces. The revolution leads to widespread violence, economic disruption, and cultural destruction.
  • 1976: Mao dies, and Deng Xiaoping becomes the country's de facto leader.
  • 1980s: Deng Xiaoping launches a series of economic reforms to modernise and grow China's economy. The country becomes a major manufacturing centre for the world. 
  • 1989: The Tiananmen Square protests occur in Beijing, as students and intellectuals demand political and economic reforms. The Chinese government uses force to quash the protests, killing hundreds to thousands of people based on historical estimates. 
  • 1990s: China continues to grow economically, joining the World Trade Organization in 2001.
  • 1997: Hong Kong's sovereignty passes from the UK to China, establishing the 'one country, two systems' policy.
  • 2000s: China becomes the world's second-largest economy and begins to play a significant role in international politics and economics. The country also faces growing social and environmental problems, including air pollution, corruption and income inequality.
  • 2003: China and Hong Kong are hit by a SARS outbreak, and the country enforces a quarantine to stop the spread of the virus. 
  • 2008: China hosts the 2008 Olympic Games, and in the same year, Astronaut Zhai Zhigang completes the country's first spacewalk, showcasing its development as a world power. 
  • 2010s: China continues to grow economically and politically and begins to assert itself as a major power in the world. The country faces increasing criticism from the international community for its human rights record and territorial claims in the South China Sea.
  • 2018: The Communist Party abolishes the constitution's two-term limit for presidency, making way for Xi Jinping to become China's ruler for life.
  • 2018–present: The US–China trade war sees the US banning the sale and import of communications equipment from five Chinese companies, including Huawei and ZTE. The US government also prohibits federal employees from downloading the popular Chinese social media app TikTok on all federal devices and systems.
  • 2019: The Covid–19 virus is detected in Wuhan in late 2019, setting off an ongoing global pandemic. China implements the widely criticised zero-Covid policy, which sees millions locked down in their homes and quarantine centres throughout the country.  

Safety in China

Expats concerned about their safety in China will focus less on the dangers travellers are usually worried about, such as pickpocketing, and more on seemingly innocuous areas such as food and driving.

Serious and violent crime in China is rare, and although expats often fall victim to petty theft, especially in tourist hotspots and crowded marketplaces, it still isn’t commonplace. A little extra precaution needs to be taken when it comes to securing housing. Locking the doors, keeping valuables out of sight and, for women living alone, avoiding ground floor apartments are appropriate safety measures.

At face value, there seems to be little that can be done to avoid these unfortunate realities, but adopting certain defensive behaviours is easy and beneficial. New arrivals should take routine precautions in larger cities by paying attention to their surroundings, being mindful of their belongings in public places, and staying away from poorly lit areas at night, especially if travelling alone.

Different areas of China pose varying health risks, and new arrivals should be aware of this. For example, those visiting areas with extreme altitude may experience altitude sickness. During the rainy season, some areas, such as Guandong province, report rises in the mosquito-borne dengue fever.

Expats should also be wary of the high levels of pollution, unregulated additives in food and reckless drivers. 

Pollution in China

The smog in China can be overwhelming, especially in urban centres and heavily industrialised areas. Expats living in these areas should make an effort to exercise regularly and use an air purifier at night. Pollution can cause sinus congestion, itchy eyes and a runny nose; those with pre-existing medical conditions as well as children and the elderly may be particularly affected.

Food and water safety in China

As the country’s population continues to grow, so does the number of local food producers attempting to cut costs by using illegal additives and unsafe food practices. 'Food scandals' emerge often, and while this should not discourage new arrivals from trying everything from dim sum to thousand-year eggs, caution should be exercised.

Only approach street vendors that always seem to be busy and, until a trusted local can vouch for its safety, avoid the charming but clearly dirty corner restaurant. It is also important to only purchase raw food that, at the very least, looks fresh and appealing and is in date.

It's best to avoid drinking tap water as it is generally not considered to be safe; rather buy bottled water.

Driving safety in China

When everyone else on the road seems to be openly breaking laws and violating principles of etiquette, driving defensively in China can easily get frustrating. New residents would do well to use Chinese public transport when it's available as it's generally fast, safe and economical, and a good way to get to know one’s surroundings. Expats shouldn't be afraid to walk, either – China can be surprisingly pedestrian friendly, although being aware of the unpredictable surrounding traffic is important. 

Expats who want to use a car should consider hiring a driver at first, but those who do get behind the wheel must try to stay calm and allow themselves some time to adapt to the Chinese rhythm of driving.

Terrorism in China

Terrorism is rare and generally doesn't affect expats or the areas they tend to settle in. Minor attacks in Urumqi, the capital of the Xinjiang province in the fairly remote northwest of the country, have been blamed on separatist extremists from the region's Uyghur minority. Historically, incidents such as these rarely have effects outside of the province and expats should remain unaffected.

Political situation in China

Expats travelling to China should be aware of the political situation in the country. China is a one-party state and expats should avoid open discussions of politics with new acquaintances. We also recommend avoiding any demonstrations that may take place.

Visas for China

Most foreigners will need a visa to enter China. Visas are categorised by a letter according to applicant characteristics – this can seem confusing at first, but once familiar with the appropriate titles, visa application processes will become clearer.

However, visa regulations can change suddenly and without warning. There is often a degree of inconsistency between online resources, consulates and the local Public Safety Bureaus (PSB), where newcomers will have to register within 24 hours of arriving.

Expats are advised to be as thorough as possible with their documentation and, where a minimum requirement is stated, to go over and above that. For instance, it's a good idea to ensure that passports are valid for more than the six-month minimum required by Chinese authorities, especially for longer stays.

Applying for a Chinese visa

We recommend starting the visa process at least one month in advance, but no earlier than three months before the intended date of travel.

To apply for a visa, applicants can start the process by using the Chinese Online Visa Application (COVA) service. Applicants are also typically required to visit an official Visa Application Centre or embassy in person. This is to obtain biometric fingerprint scans, which may be checked and collected again when registering with the PSB after an expat's arrival in China. Visa applications can be tracked online.

Tourist visas for China (L visa)

Tourist visas, categorised as L visas, are issued for tourist visits to China. These come in single-, double- and multiple-entry variants. Single-entry visas are valid for three months from the date of issue, while double- and multiple-entry visas are valid for six or 12 months for stays of no longer than 30 days at a time.

The Chinese government requires proof of travel itinerary or an invitation letter, as well as proof of funds, a visa application fee and evidence of a return or onward ticket.

Non-commercial visit visas for China (F visa)

Under the revised visa system, F visas are issued to applicants who intend to visit China for non-commercial purposes such as conferences, cultural exchanges and study tours. Single-entry F visas are usually valid for 30 days, while longer multiple-entry visas can also be applied for.

Business visas for China (M visa)

The M visa, or commercial trade activities visa, is issued to applicants going to China for commercial and trade activities. In addition to the standard documentation, applicants will also need a letter of invitation from their host company in China or documents such as an official trade fair invitation.

M visas are generally limited to stays of up to 30 days, but are eligible for extensions.

Dependant visas for China (Q and S visas)

Relatives of Chinese citizens or foreigners with permanent residence in China can apply for a Q visa. Q1 visas are for stays over 180 days; Q2 visas are for stays 180 days or less.

Relatives and dependants of foreigners working in China can apply for S visas if their reason for travel is visiting or for personal matters. S1 visas are valid for over 180 days, while S2 visas are valid up to 180 days.

Five and 10-year multiple-entry visas for China

Under certain circumstances, expats can apply for visas valid for five or 10 years. This includes holders of business, tourist, short-term family visit or personal affairs visas (M, L, Q and S visas, respectively). Expats who have previously held multiple-entry visas can typically explore their options for a five-year visa, and once granted this, they may be able to apply for a 10-year visa.

Work visas for China (Z visa)

The Z visa is typically issued to expats taking up employment in China for more than six months, though shorter-term entry permits are also available.

Note that expats working in the journalism field should apply for a separate J visa, and expats deemed to be highly skilled and urgently needed will need to obtain an R visa.

Chinese authorities require extensive documentation for Z visa applications, usually including a confirmation letter of invitation issued by the Chinese company.

Expats should note the difference between a work visa and a work permit for China. Although they are closely related, the former allows the applicant to enter the country for work, while the latter enables them to stay and work in the country.

*Visa regulations are subject to change at short notice, and expats should contact their nearest embassy or consulate for the latest information.

Keeping in Touch in China

China has a sophisticated communications and telephone infrastructure, the internet is fast and affordable, and keeping in touch with friends and family will be easy. It's still essential to know about some of the peculiarities of living in China before making the move.

Chinese media infrastructure and telecommunications are largely controlled by three state-run enterprises – China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom. The result is that censorship is a reality, and expats may not be able to access services they might have been used to in their home country

Internet in China

In major cities such as Beijing, internet access is widely available through home connections, internet cafes and free WiFi at many hotels, airports, restaurants and cafes. 

Home users can choose between 4G connections or DSL connections through one of the three largest internet providers in China, which are Alibaba, Baidu and Tencent. 5G connectivity is also rapidly expanding and leading Chinese smartphone makers are already releasing phone models with 5G capabilities. 

Anyone can take out an internet subscription by visiting one of a China Mobile, China Telecom or China Unicom outlet. Alternatively, expats could ask a Chinese-speaking colleague to call the provider's office and schedule a home visit. Installation is generally fast, although the price will depend on the location, broadband speed and the duration of the contract. 

Great Firewall

Services such as Gmail, Skype, YouTube, Facebook and Twitter cannot be accessed in China without a workaround. Most expats in China highly recommend the use of a VPN, which is essential if they want to access these sites, and if they'd like to watch streaming services such as Netflix or BBC iPlayer. It's best to avoid free VPN providers as they often collect and sell information on their users. Rather, subscribe to an established VPN company such as NordVPN, ExpressVPN or SurfShark.

Mobile phones in China

China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom are also the biggest mobile phone operators in the country. The majority of new arrivals get a pay-as-you-go package, though contracts are also available. Applicants may need to supply their passport and visa in order to buy a SIM card.


While Facebook, WhatsApp and Instagram might be all the rage in the US, UK and other Western countries, China's most popular instant messaging app is WeChat. It's similar to WhatsApp, but can also be used to make payments, do shopping and more. With over a billion users, having the WeChat app is essential if expats want to communicate with others in China. Businesses often use it for internal communication too.

English media in China

English-language media in China is easily accessible. The CCTV (China Central Television) news channel provides around-the-clock coverage in English and is known to be more liberal than most Chinese channels.

There are also several options in print media such as China Daily and China Times, as well as regional newspapers such as Shanghai Daily.

Expats will need a VPN network to be able to access Western newspaper websites.

Transport and Driving in China

Fittingly for a country of its enormity, China has a variety of transport options. Expats in the People’s Republic have access to buses, trains, subways, ferries and taxis in many cities, and there are also several options for long-distance travel, including high-speed trains, buses and domestic flights.

Walking and cycling are also popular in much of China, as they are cheap and healthy ways of covering short distances. Some cities have bicycle-hiring programmes as part of their public transport infrastructure.

Driving in China, on the other hand, is a challenge for most expats and is often characterised by chaos and congestion. It may be a good idea for foreigners to get to know their surroundings through public transport before getting behind the wheel.

Public transport in China

Standards vary from city to city, but the wider network of public transport in China is fairly comprehensive. Its train and long-distance bus services make it possible to cover large distances with relative ease.


The national railway network in China is extensive and covers the entire country. China also has railway links with neighbouring countries, and the famous Trans-Siberian Railway reaches Beijing. Expansions and improvements are constantly being made to the country’s rail infrastructure, especially with regard to its high-speed trains. Most of China’s infrastructure is owned and administrated by the state-owned China Railway.

The different types of trains in China operate on different routes and at varying speeds. High-speed trains operate between the major cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Expats who have the option to travel by high-speed train should do so, as it makes for a more comfortable experience.

Various travel classes are available on different train services. Long-distance trains generally offer sleeper compartments, allowing passengers to get some rest while travelling. Soft sleepers are most comfortable, followed by hard sleepers, and then there are soft seats and hard seats.

Tickets can be bought in advance at stations and, because they aren't transferrable, passengers will need to provide proof of ID when travelling by train in China.

Most railway staff don't speak English, so it may be best for expats to enlist the help of a local acquaintance when buying tickets. Expats should also note that tickets sell out rapidly during national holidays and festivals, such as the Chinese New Year. At these times, it's often worth getting tickets through an agent to avoid long station queues.


China's largest cities are home to some of the best – and busiest – metro systems. Each city tends to have a unique rechargeable public transit card that is usable across various modes of transport, including the subway. Metro systems are clean and efficient, with short waiting times. Expats concerned about the language barrier when getting around will be relieved that metro stations generally have maps, signs and announcements in Standard Chinese as well as English.

Taking the metro in China can be a chaotic experience, especially during rush hour. It's best to plan out the route in advance by looking at the colour-coded maps and remembering the name of the destination to avoid getting lost or confused in a crowded station.


Travelling by bus in China is another inexpensive way to get around, although service standards vary widely between relative luxury and incredible discomfort. Large cities operate efficient Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems with priority bus lanes, as well as trolleybuses and bus services provided by multiple companies.

Air-conditioned buses with comfortable seating and onboard entertainment frequently travel from the major cities, but could cost more than an equivalent train ride. Rural buses, on the other hand, are likely to be a challenging experience. Personnel rarely speak English, signs are usually in Chinese, buses are poorly maintained and delays are common.

Taxis in China

Taxis are readily available in all major cities and are reasonably priced. Rates increase for travelling at night, and finding a taxi during peak hours or bad weather can be difficult.

Taxi drivers in China are usually reluctant to accept tips, as it may be seen as a form of corruption, but some drivers will take advantage of foreigners by travelling longer routes. However, even in these instances, the fare difference is minimal. It's always best to use metered taxis – unofficial taxis commonly approach foreigners at airports and tourist attractions and overcharge.

Expats should note that even drivers in cities such as Beijing and Shanghai rarely speak English, so it's best to have the destination written down in Chinese. Alternatively, ride-hailing applications such as DiDi are a convenient way of getting a taxi and arriving at the correct destination.

Driving in China

Chinese roads are frantic and defensive driving is a necessity. Lanes aren't always adhered to, hooters constantly blare and it sometimes seems like there's no concept of the right of way. Congestion can also be severe and parking is often impossible to find. On the other hand, there are some English road signs in major tourist destinations.

International Driving Permits aren't recognised in the People's Republic, so expats who want to drive in China will need to get a local licence. Some countries have an agreement with China allowing a direct swap of one's home driving licence for a Chinese driving licence. Expats from countries not signatory to such an agreement will have to pass the theoretical and practical test.

Driving in China can be harrowing, though, and expats may want to reconsider taking to the wheel. The safest way of getting around on four wheels is perhaps to rent a car with a driver who understands local driving etiquette.

Cycling in China

Cycling is a cheap and convenient way of getting around Chinese cities. Thousands of bicycles take to the roads during rush hour, and many cities have dedicated cycle paths. Several cities offer bike-sharing programmes and e-bicycles or e-bikes that are easy to rent by scanning a bar code or number plate on the bicycle and paying a fee.

Given the erratic nature of Chinese traffic, cyclists have to ride defensively, so it may be best for inexperienced cyclists to give it some time before attempting to take to the road.

Boat travel in China

China is said to have more navigable waterways than any other country in the world, including rivers, streams, lakes and canals. While waterways are largely used by ships carrying cargo for major shipping and removals logistics, passenger transport by boat is a great way to travel in China. Cities, such as Shanghai and Guangzhou, offer ferry services which conveniently and affordably connect different areas of the city.

Boat cruises also make for a popular sightseeing activity for new arrivals and tourists.

Air travel in China

Given the country’s size, travellers in a hurry often prefer to take a domestic flight to get to their destination. But because flight delays are common, it may be better for passengers travelling shorter distances to use ground-based transport. Expats who want to fly to China and between cities should regularly check flight updates and details.

Several airlines, including Air China, China Southern Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines and Shanghai Airlines, operate between the major cities and tourist destinations.

Prices for flights within mainland China are set at domestic rates, but discounts are often available on the busiest routes. Buying online via a Chinese website or travel agency is generally cheaper than on international channels.

Perhaps unexpectedly, this also means that tickets bought in advance aren't cheaper. Instead, there's usually a lower fare for remaining seats closer to the date of departure. Planes are usually full during peak periods, so it's still best to book well ahead of time in these instances.

Moving to China

As an East Asian powerhouse that stretches over a landmass almost as large as the entire continent of Europe, a foreigner's experience in China could vary greatly depending on where they end up. Some expats may picture the urban jungles of Chinese megacities, others may imagine its megadiversity, from bamboo forests to tropical rainforests or arid deserts to mountain ranges, rivers and valleys. Whatever the planned destination, moving to China is an opportunity for expats to experience a country that's both rich in history and focused on the future.

Thanks to its immense growth over the past few decades, China has continued to attract foreigners with specialised skills and advanced education to take up employment across various sectors. However, subsequent competition for jobs has increased and relocation packages have been driven down by candidates from elsewhere in Asia who are willing to work for less than most Western expats.

Despite China's immensity, most expats live in a handful of cities that traditionally attracted job hunters from the interior. As they have grown, so has their appeal and what were once medium-sized cities have quickly grown, and continue expanding into sprawling metropolises.

While a way of life that's centred around traditional family structures and values persists amid the rapid development, China's economic growth has come at a price. Its problems with pollution and overpopulation are well documented, but as it enters the next stage of development, the country has moved away from its emphasis on industry to developing its service sector and improving its environmental sustainability.

The most popular places among expats living in China include Beijing, GuangzhouShanghai and Shenzhen. Despite the influx of foreign workers, Chinese cities might not seem so diverse to the average Westerner, who often must adapt to a great deal of culture shock. Regional differences are also vast and expats will find variations in how things are done in different cities, from cuisine to housing regulations.

Foreigners sometimes find themselves weighing jostling crowds and tedious bureaucracy against the luxuries of still higher-than-average income and active expat communities. Many Western expats take a while to adjust to the fact that the government is involved in the lives of its citizens and actively censors materials it considers harmful to society. Keeping in touch with friends and family through typical social media platforms is a common hurdle to overcome.

Driving in China also takes getting used to, especially because of almost constant traffic congestion and plenty of aggressive drivers. Many expats prefer the high-quality public transport in China, with its bullet trains, city subway systems and vast bus networks.

As it tries to accommodate the expats in its borders, China has expanded its healthcare system to include facilities aimed at Westerners and its private hospitals are of a high standard. While Chinese schools are generally exclusively taught in Mandarin, expats have access to world-class international and private schools, although these come at a price.

Whether they're moving to China for business or to expand their horizons, expats may find its unfamiliar culture, its high population density and the language barrier can be challenging. However, those who are ultimately able to adjust will enjoy a rewarding expat experience. The complex layers of life in China expose expats to a rich culture, a new way of living and a vast country to explore.

Fast facts

Population: About 1.4 billion

Capital city: Beijing

Neighbouring countries: Covering a vast expanse of the Asian mainland, China's neighbours include Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar to the south; India, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, and Pakistan to the southwest; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan to the west, Mongolia to the north, part of Russia to the northeast, North Korea, South Korea and Japan to the east, and Taiwan to the southeast.

Geography: As the world's third-largest country by geographic size, China covers a vast landscape stretching around 3.7 square miles (9.6 square kilometres). Its diverse terrain includes high plateaus, sunken basins, mountains, desert and coastal regions, and China is home to Asia's longest river, the Yangtze.

Political system: Single-party socialist republic

Major religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Chinese folk religions

Main languages: Mandarin Chinese, with hundreds of local dialects

Money: The Renminbi (RMB), also referred to as the Chinese Yuan (CNY), is the official currency. It is divided into 10 jiao.

Time: GMT +8

Electricity:  220V, 50Hz. Chinese Standard three-pin plugs (type I) are most common; plug types A and C are also available.

Internet domain: .cn

International dialling code: +86

Emergency contacts: In most major cities the emergency numbers are 110 (police), 120 (ambulance), and 119 (fire)

Transport and driving: Traffic drives on the right-hand side, except in Hong Kong and Macau. The country has an expansive national railway network which includes high-speed trains. Public transport may be difficult to navigate for non-Mandarin speakers.

Frequently Asked Questions about China

China is a vast country steeped in history and tradition. Expats will likely need to make many adjustments when moving there, so it's best to gather as much information as possible before the big move. Here are answers to some of the most common questions expats have about moving to China.

Is it worth learning Mandarin? What about Cantonese?

The main language spoken in China is Standard Chinese or Standard Mandarin, based on central Mandarin. Cantonese is mostly spoken in Hong Kong, Macau and the Guangdong Province.

Most of the general population cannot speak English and this language barrier is a major element of culture shock. While many Chinese nationals are keen on learning English, expats should try learn at least key phrases in Mandarin. A basic vocabulary is necessary for ordering food, purchasing goods or asking for directions.

Mandarin is very different from Western languages in structure, so it can prove complicated to learn. The written characters are separate from the spoken language. But if expats work hard to jump this hurdle, learning the language is hugely beneficial for both social reasons and in business settings. Knowing Mandarin, even the rudiments of the grammar, is a major plus for employment in any company in China.

How is life in China for female expats?

There can be strong gender stereotypes in China and often it is difficult for women in managerial positions. A bad dating scene for women is usually a popular topic of discussion on expat forums.

Will my internet be censored?

The Chinese government stringently and successfully polices internet use. Sites that include certain subject matter are censored and restrictions on many of the popular social networking sites also exist, including Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.

That said, most sites are still accessible, including foreign news sites. Many expats use VPNs (virtual private networks) to access blocked material, although lately, even these services have been ineffective in circumventing the 'iron curtain'.

Censorship is an ongoing controversy and levels of enforcement and effectiveness change often.

Is China safe?

Most expats report feeling safe in China. While it’s usually safe to walk home at night in major cities, obvious risks and bad neighbourhoods should be avoided. Expats do have to be careful in crowds as they are often the victims of petty crimes such as pickpocketing and scams.

One of the largest dangers to expats is food safety, as many people suffer from disease and bacteria resulting from unclean or improperly cooked foods. Pollution is another safety hazard that can affect expats, especially those with underlying respiratory issues. Expats must follow instructions from authorities regarding health alerts.

Banking, Money and Taxes in China

Banking in China is generally straightforward, and various local and international options are available.

The language barrier may present challenges, but many organisations have service options in English. It's also easy to employ the expertise of a translator or enlist a Chinese friend if things become complicated.

Money in China

The official currency of China is the Renminbi (RMB or CNY). It’s often referred to as the Yuan or Kuài, an informal word for money. One renminbi is equal to 100 fen or 10 jiao. 

  • Notes: 1 RMB, 5 RMB, 10 RMB, 20 RMB, 50 RMB, 100 RMB

  • Coins: 1 jiao, 5 jiao, and 1 RMB

Banking in China

With many local and international banks to choose from, expats have a variety of options when it comes to banking in China. The most popular local banks include Bank of China, China Construction Bank, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China and the Agricultural Bank of China, while international offerings include HSBC, Citibank and Standard Chartered, among others.

Some expats, especially those who only plan on staying in China for a short while, prefer offshore accounts, even though these carry hefty transaction fees.

Opening a bank account

Opening a bank account in China is relatively hassle free. Familiar international brands and a number of local institutions are available. Both options have pros and cons, and the best choice depends on individual circumstances.

Many expats prefer using an international bank, especially if they have an existing account with one of these institutions. ATMs may be limited in certain locations, however, particularly outside large cities.

Expats generally only need their passport and a small amount of currency to open a basic account, although some branches may require a copy of the applicant's visa or proof of residence.

As with many bureaucratic processes in China, the language barrier can present a problem. Information provided by banks is often written in Chinese, and asking for an English translation or enlisting the help of someone who speaks the language may be necessary. Otherwise, many expats identify a branch where employees can speak English and close to their home or workplace, and use this outlet for complicated queries.

ATMs and credit cards

Local banks have ample ATMs across the country, while international services may be limited. Although credit cards are widely accepted across China, cash remains a popular means of paying for goods and services, and it's useful to have some cash on hand.

Taxes in China

An expat's taxation in China depends on whether they are considered a resident or non-resident for tax purposes. Individuals who reside in China for at least 183 a year are tax residents and are required to pay tax on income earned both inside and outside of China. Expats who stay in China for less than 183 days a year are non-residents, and only need to pay tax on income sourced from within China.

Chinese taxes are calculated on a progressive scale from three to 45 percent. Tax laws often change and keeping up to date is important as the penalties can be harsh.

As in any country, tax laws for expatriates in China can be complex and may be better dealt with through a tax professional. Companies should help new employees register for the tax system and often deduct personal income tax automatically.